A ballot on industrial action will be considered by the executive committee of primary teachers' union, the INTO, next week.
It follows the rejection of a Government proposal to restore pay parity for new primary teachers by members.
The Government had hoped plans to gradually restore the pay of new entrants to the public service would end a long-running dispute over what unions say is a two-tier pay scale in the teaching profession.
However, members of the INTO turned down the deal by 53%.
The union's Central Executive Committee will meet next week to decide on their next move, which includes a ballot for industrial action.
Head of Communications at the INTO David Geary said: "[Members are] committed to a ballot for industrial action moving forward.
"I think it's fair to say the members who voted for this were aware [...] this was the path we were going down."
Education Minister Joe McHugh is disappointed the deal was rejected by primary school teachers, but stressed he is still willing to 'engage constructively' with the union.